Pubmed Monday

Anesthetic management of lung transplantation: impact of presenting disease.


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent literature has described the emerging role of anesthesiologists as key members of the lung transplantation team and the impact of anesthetic management on outcomes. This review examines the impact of presenting cause of end-stage lung disease (ESLD) on anesthetic management.

RECENT FINDINGS: The four primary causes of ESLD are suppurative, obstructive, or restrictive processes, and pulmonary hypertension. Our recent review of perioperative literature revealed new data regarding preoperative risk stratification, intraoperative management, and postoperative use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. Major studies specifically about anesthetic management are lacking; however, the principles studied are readily applicable to the design of a perioperative care plan. The most compelling data have resulted in a revolutionary change in terms of intraoperative support and postoperative planning for pulmonary hypertension patients. Historically treated with cardiopulmonary bypass, significant data have been reported describing the successful use of ECMO both as an intraoperative support with superior outcomes, as well as postoperative support for improved stability during biventricular remodeling post graft implantation.

SUMMARY: The application of these updated findings should assist anesthesiologists as they develop internal protocols and external guidelines to integrate within multidisciplinary teams caring for the lung transplant patient.

Anesthetic Implications of the New Guidelines for Button Battery Ingestion in Children.


Button battery ingestions result in significant morbidity and mortality in children-before, during, and even after removal. The injuries created by a button battery lodged in the esophagus develop rapidly and can be severe. The current of the button battery, conducted through saliva and the tissue drives a highly alkaline caustic injury, leading to liquefactive tissue necrosis. In June 2018, new guidelines were released from the National Capital Poison Center, which include the use of preoperative protective, pH-neutralizing and viscous barrier interventions with honey and/or sucralfate administered within 12 h of ingestion. In addition, the use of postremoval irrigation of the esophagus with 50-150 mL 0.25% acetic acid is done in the operating room to help neutralize the site of tissue injury. Given that anesthesiologists play an important role in the management of esophageal foreign body removal, the entire specialty needs to be aware of the supporting data behind this and general perioperative considerations for management and potential complications of button battery ingestion.

Awake videolaryngoscopy versus fiberoptic bronchoscopy.


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The difficult airway remains an ongoing concern in daily anesthesia practice, with awake intubation being an important component of its management. Classically, fiberoptic bronchoscope-assisted tracheal intubation was the method of choice in the awake patient. The development of new generation videolaryngoscopes has revolutionized the approach to tracheal intubation in the anesthetized patient. The question whether videolaryngoscopes have a place in the intubation of the difficult airway in the awake patient is currently being addressed.

RECENT FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trials and their meta-analysis have shown that videolaryngoscopes provide similar success rates and faster intubation times when compared with fiberoptic bronchoscope intubation in awake patients with difficult airways.

SUMMARY: Videolaryngoscopy is a valid technique that should be considered for difficult airway management in the awake patient.

Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics in older adults.


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the growing of the aging population, increased and new methods of anesthesia and surgery allow for surgery and other interventions in older adults.Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in older adults differ from those in younger and middle-aged adults. However, the geriatric population is frequently neglected in the context of clinical trials. The present review focuses on the consequences of multimorbidity and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic alterations and their implications on anesthesia.

RECENT FINDINGS: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling may serve as an option to better understand the influence of age on drugs used for anesthesia. However, difficulties to adequately characterize geriatric patients are described.

SUMMARY: Further research of drug effects in the aging population may include physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic complex models and randomized controlled trials with thoroughly conducted geriatric assessments.

Awake craniotomy: anesthetic considerations based on outcome evidence.


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights anaesthesia management options for awake craniotomy and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches, intraoperative complications and future directions.

RECENT FINDINGS: For lesions located within or adjacent to eloquent regions of the brain, awake craniotomy allows maximal tumour resection with minimal consequences on neurological function. Various techniques have been described to provide anaesthesia or sedation and analgesia during the initial craniotomy, and rapid return to consciousness for intraoperative testing and tumour resection; there is no evidence that one approach is superior to another. Although very safe, awake craniotomy is associated with some well recognized complications; most are minor and self-limiting or easily reversed. In experienced hands, failure of awake craniotomy occurs in fewer than 2% of cases, irrespective of anaesthesia technique. Although brain tumour surgery remains the most common indication for awake craniotomy, the technique is finding utility in other neurosurgical procedures.

SUMMARY: Several anaesthetic approaches are available for the management of patients during awake craniotomy. The choice of technique should be based on individual patient factors, location and duration of surgery, and anaesthesiologist expertise and experience. Appropriate patient selection and excellent multidisciplinary team working is associated with high levels of procedural success and patient satisfaction.

Assessment of Common Criteria for Awake Extubation in Infants and Young Children.


BACKGROUND: Practice patterns surrounding awake extubation of pediatric surgical patients remain largely undocumented. This study assessed the value of commonly used predictors of fitness for extubation to determine which were most salient in predicting successful extubation following emergence from general anesthesia with a volatile anesthetic in young children.

METHODS: This prospective, observational study was performed in 600 children from 0 to 7 yr of age. The presence or absence of nine commonly used extubation criteria in children were recorded at the time of extubation including: facial grimace, eye opening, low end-tidal anesthetic concentration, spontaneous tidal volume greater than 5 ml/kg, conjugate gaze, purposeful movement, movement other than coughing, laryngeal stimulation test, and oxygen saturation. Extubations were graded as Successful, Intervention Required, or Major Intervention Required using a standard set of criteria. The Intervention Required and Major Intervention Required outcomes were combined as a single outcome for analysis of predictors of success.

RESULTS: Successful extubation occurred in 92.7% (556 of 600) of cases. Facial grimace odds ratio, 1.93 (95% CI, 1.03 to 3.60; P = 0.039), purposeful movement odds ratio, 2.42 (95% CI, 1.14 to 5.12; P = 0.022), conjugate gaze odds ratio, 2.10 (95% CI, 1.14 to 4.01; P = 0.031), eye opening odds ratio, 4.44 (95% CI, 1.06 to 18.64; P= 0.042), and tidal volume greater than 5 ml/kg odds ratio, 2.66 (95% CI, 1.21 to 5.86; P = 0.015) were univariately associated with the Successful group. A stepwise increase in any one, in any order, of these five predictors being present, from one out of five and up to five out of five yielded an increasing positive predictive value for successful extubation of 88.3% (95% CI, 82.4 to 94.3), 88.4% (95% CI, 83.5 to 93.3), 96.3% (95% CI, 93.4 to 99.2), 97.4% (95% CI, 94.4 to 100), and 100% (95% CI, 90 to 100).

CONCLUSIONS: Conjugate gaze, facial grimace, eye opening, purposeful movement, and tidal volume greater than 5 ml/kg were each individually associated with extubation success in pediatric surgical patients after volatile anesthetic. Further, the use of a multifactorial approach using these predictors, may lead to a more rational and robust approach to successful awake extubation.

Anesthesia-induced immune modulation.


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Surgery, invasive procedures and anesthesia itself may induce an inflammatory response in the patient. This represents an evolutionary inherited and conserved response of the host to environmental stimuli and may lead to both beneficial and potentially harmful effects. This review highlights the mechanisms of anesthesia-induced and perioperative immune modulation.

RECENT FINDINGS: The innate and adaptive immune system serve the host in protection against invading pathogens. Yet, an inflammatory immune response may also be induced by different noninfectious stimuli, for example invasive perioperative procedures and the surgical trauma itself. These stimuli may lead to the activation of the immune system with the consequence of perturbation of cell, tissue of even organ functions in cases of an overshooting immune response. Several perioperative factors have been identified that modulate the immune response, for example different anesthetic drugs and surgical tissue injury, but their impact on immune system modulation may also vary with respect to the procedural context and include both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects.

SUMMARY: The current review will highlight the current knowledge on the perioperative anesthesia-induced and surgery-induced modulation of the immune response and also address possible intervention strategies for the development of future therapeutic approaches.

The concept of peri-operative medicine to prevent major adverse events and improve outcome in surgical patients: A narrative review.


Peri-operative Medicine is the patient-centred and value-based multidisciplinary peri-operative care of surgical patients. Peri-operative stress, that is the collective response to stimuli occurring before, during and after surgery, is, together with pre-existing comorbidities, the pathophysiological basis of major adverse events. The ultimate goal of Peri-operative Medicine is to promote high quality recovery after surgery. Clinical scores and/or biomarkers should be used to identify patients at high risk of developing major adverse events throughout the peri-operative period. Allocation of high-risk patients to specific care pathways with peri-operative organ protection, close surveillance and specific early interventions is likely to improve patient-relevant outcomes, such as disability, health-related quality of life and mortality.

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